Alaturi de Cluj-Napoca, Timisoara si Arad,municipiul Sibiu este unul din cele mai frumoase orase transilvanene.Are un farmec aparte,deorece este un "oras muzeu" ce evoca prin zidurile turnului de aparare,bastioanele fostei catati a Sibiu-lui,vremurile unei frumoase istorii.Orasul pastreaza peste timp amintirea unor oameni de seama ai istoriei,artei si culturii nationale,figuri ilustre din randul celorlalte nationalitati - sasi,maghiari - care au trait si creat pe aceste meleaguri pe care le-au considerat dintodea-una patria lor."Orasul vechi",asezat chiar in centru,este inconjurat de zidurile vechii cetati.Prin traditie,Sibiul este impartit in orasul de sus si cel de jos.Sibiul este cunoscut ca un puternic centru turistic cu numeroase si diverse obiective turistice.De asemenea,imprejurimile sale sunt pitoresti si cu locuri atragatoare.
La ville de Sibiu est le chef-lieu du Judet de Sibiu.Elle est centre culturel traditionnel des saxons de Transylvanie et partage un lien avec la ville de Brasov.
Sibiu a ete designe "capitale europeenne de la culture"pour l'an 2007,titre qu'il partage avec Luxembourg.
Sibiu est situé près du centre géographique de la Roumanie, dans le sud de la Transylvanie.Placé dans la dépression du Cibin qui est traversée par la rivière homonyme, la ville se trouve à 20 km des Montagnes de Făgăraş , 12 km des Montagnes de Cibin et à approximativement 15 km des montagnes Lotrului, qui confinent la dépression au sud-ouest. Au nord et à l'est, Sibiu confine le Plateau des Târnave, qui descende vers la vallée du Cibin par la colline Guşteriţei.
Sibiu it straddles the Cibin river,a tributary of the river Olt.
Sibiu was designated European Capital of Culture for the year 2007 together with Luxembourg.
Sibiu is situated near the geographical center of Romania. Set in the Cibin Depression, the city is about 20 km from the Fagaras mountains,12km from the Cibin mountains,and about 15km from the Lotrului mountains,which border the depression in it's southwestern section.The northern and eastern limits of Sibiu are formed by the Târnavelor Plateau, which descends to the Cibin Valley through Guşteriţei Hill.
The Cibin river and some roads of national and international interest run through Sibiu, which is also an important city for the railway transportation, as the meeting point of east-west and north-south routes.
The city of Sibiu and its surroundings are one of the most visited areas in Romania. It holds one of the best preserved historical sites in the country, many of its medieval fortifications having been kept in excellent state.Sibiu and its surrounding area have many significant museums, with 12 institutions housing art collections, paintings, and exhibits in decorative arts, archaeology, anthropology, history, industrial archeology and history of technology and natural sciences.
Much of the city's aspect is due to its position, easily defensible, but allowing horizontal development. The old city of Sibiu lies on the right bank of the Cibin River, on a hill situated at about 200 m from the river. It consists of two distinct entities: the Upper City and the Lower City. Traditionally, the Upper City was the wealthier part and commercial outlet, while the Lower City served as the manufacturing area.
THE LOWER CITY
The Lower City (Romanian: Oraşul de jos) comprises the area between the river and the hill, and it developed around the earliest fortifications. The streets are long and quite wide for medieval city standards, with small city squares at places. The architecture is rather rustic: typically two-storey houses with tall roofs and gates opening passages to inner courts.
Most of the exterior fortifications were lost to industrial development and modern urban planning in the late 19th century; only one or two towers still exist. A building associated with newer urbanism of the period is the Independenţa Highschool.
This area has the oldest church in the city, dating back to 1386.
THE UPPER CITY
The Upper City (Romanian: Oraşul de sus) is organised around three city squares and a set of streets along the line of the hill. As the main area for burgher activities, the area contains most points of interest in Sibiu.
THE LARGE SQUARE
The Large Square (Romanian: Piaţa Mare) is, as its name suggests, the largest square of the city, and has been the center of the city since the 16th century. 142 m long and 93 m wide, it is one of the largest ones in Transylvania.
Brukenthal Palace, one of the most important Baroque monuments in Romania, lies on the north-western corner of the square. It was erected between 1777 and 1787 as the main residence for the Governor of Trasylvania Samuel von Brukenthal. It houses the main part of the National Brukenthal Museum, opened in 1817. Next to the palace is the Blue House, an 18th century Baroque house bearing the old coat of arms of Sibiu on its façade.
On the north side is the Jesuit Church, along with its dependencies, the former residence of the Jesuits in Sibiu. Also on the north side, at the beginning of the 20th century an Art Nouveau building was constructed on the west part, now it houses the mayor's office.
Next to the Jesuit Church on the north side is the Council Tower, one of the city's symbols. This former fortification tower from the 14th century has been successively rebuilt over the years. The building nearby used to be the City Council's meetingplace; beneath it lies an access way between the Large Square and the Small Square.
On the south and east sides are two- or three-storey houses, having tall attics with small windows known as the city's eyes. Most of these houses are dated 17th to 19th centuries, and most of them are Baroque in style.
PIATA MARE - " Ringul cel mare" cum i se spunea odata,era locul de intalnire,de serbari.Festivitati pitoresti s-au desfasurat aici cu prilejul instalarii conducatorilor cetati.Aici se dadeau mese mari,Boi,berbeci si miei intregi se frigeau in piata si vinul se bea din uriase boloboace.Breslasii si ucenicii lor infatisau atunci jocuri populare cu talcuri simbolice.Memorabila a ramas serbarea de la 14 februarie 1582.Aici oamenii se intalneau si se sfatuiau cum sa apere cetatea in vremuri de rastriste.Tot aici multimea privea inmarmurita decapitari,spanzurari si chiar arderi pe rug,pana la sfarsitul secolului XVIII.
THE SMALL SQUARE
As its name says, the Piaţă Mică is smaller in size, being rather longer than wide. Its north-west side has a curved shape, unlike the Large Square, which has an approximately rectangular shape. Accordingly, Piaţă Mică plays a smaller part in the city's present-day life.
The square is connected to the other two squares and to other streets by small, narrow passages. The main access from the Lower City is through Ocnei Street, which divides the square in two. The street passes under the Liar's Bridge - the first bridge in Romania to have been cast in iron (1859).
To the right of the bridge is another symbol of the city, The House of the Arts, an arched building formerly belonging to the Butchers' Guild. On the left side of the bridge is the Luxemburg House, a Baroque four-storey building, former seat of the Goldsmiths' Guild.
THE HUET SQUARE
Huet Square is the third of the three main squares of Sibiu. Its most notable feature is the Evangelical (Lutheran) Cathedral in its center. It is the place where the earliest fortifications have been built. The buildings around this square are mainly Gothic. On the west side lies the Brukenthal Highschool, in place of a former 15th century school.
The city of Sibiu was one of the most important fortified cities in Southeastern Europe. Multiple rings were built around the city, most of them out of clay bricks. The south-eastern fortifications are the best kept, and all three parallel lines are still visible. The first is an exterior earth mound, the second is a 10-meter-tall red brick wall, and the third line comprises towers linked by another 10-meter-tall wall. All structures are connected via a labyrinth of tunnels and passageways, designed to ensure transport between the city and lines of defense.
In the 16th century more modern elements were added to the fortifications, mainly leaf-shaped bastions. One of these survived to this day, as the Haller Bastion .
Zidul cetatii si turnurile de aparare ( str.Cetatii) - zidul a fost construit in sec al XIV -lea,ca a treia centura de fortificatii.Intarit,pentru cetate,in sec.XVII si restaurat in 1963.Turnul archebuzierilor,devenit mai tarziu "Turnul panzarilor",construit in sec XV,pe o fundatie octogenala.In interior turnul dispune de doua drumuri de rond,ca loc de manevra si de amplasare a aparatorilor in timpul luptelor.
PASSAGE OF THE STAIRS The steep Passage of the Stairs leads down to the lower section of Sibiu. It descends along some fortifications under the support arches. It is the most picturesque of the several passages linking the two sides of the city.
PASAJUL SCARILOR - amenajat in ultimul timp.Zidul celui de-al treilea cordon de aparare,se prelungeste spre nord,sprijinit de puternice arcuri butane.Construit in sec.XIII . I se mai spune si "Zidul cu ace".Locul cel mai pitoresc si caracteristic Sibiului vechi.