Saturday, September 15, 2007

BRASOV

Municipiul Braşov se află în centrul ţării, în Depresiunea Braşovului, la 161 km de Bucureşti. Este accesibil cu automobilul/autobuzul sau cu trenul. În apropierea sa se găsesc localităţile Sinaia, Predeal, Făgăraş şi Sighişoara. Municipiul are o suprafaţă de 267,32 km². Treptat, dezvoltându-se, Braşovul a înglobat în structura sa satele Noua, Dârste, Honterus (astăzi cartierul Astra) şi Stupini. De asemenea, pe lângă Tâmpa, municipiul a mai înconjurat şi Dealul Cetăţii, Dealul Şprenghi, Dealul Morii, Dealul Melcilor, Dealul Warte şi Dealul Pe Romuri, Stejărişul şi chiar înglobează în structura sa vârful Postăvaru.




Braşov este reşedinţa şi cel mai mare municipiu al judeţului Braşov, România. Deţine titlul de oraş-martir. Staţiunea de iarnă Poiana Braşov se află la 12 km distanţă de centrul municipiului, dispunând de o infrastructură dezvoltată pentru practicarea sporturilor de iarnă. Patronul oraşului este considerată a fi Fecioara Maria. Statuia acesteia se află pe unul dintre contraforţii Bisericii Negre, îndreptat spre Casa Sfatului, având stema Braşovului sculptată dedesubt în relief.
În acest oraş a fost confecţionată şi instalată o copie a “Statuii Lupoaicei” (“Lupa Capitolina”), simbolul latinităţii poporului român.Municipiul Braşov a reprezentat, de secole, unul dintre cele mai importante, puternice şi înfloritoare oraşe din zonă. Datorită poziţiei geografice privilegiate şi a infrastructurii sale de astăzi, el permite dezvoltarea multor activităţi economice şi culturale.

BRASOV est une ville de Roumanie ayant le titre de municipe (capitale administrative locale) de même que Făgăraş et aussi de chef-lieu du judeţ de Braşov.
Elle se situe autour de la colline Tâmpa en région Ţara Bârsei à la courbure des montagnes Carpates, dans la partie d'influence saxonne de la Transylvanie historique, en jumelage avec la ville de Tours.

La ville est un centre touristiques important et la plus grande station de ski de l'Europe de l'Est. Elle est depuis longtemps un important centre économique .

BRASOV is a city in Romania and the capital of Brasov county. The city's population is 284,596, according to the 2002 census.
Braşov is located in the central part of the country, about 166 km from Bucharest
. It is surrounded by the Southern Carpathians, and is part of the Transylvania region.


BISERICA NEAGRA



Biserica Neagră este o biserică evanghelică în stil gotic din Braşov. Construită în jurul anului 1380 (probabil începând cu 1377) şi cunoscută iniţial sub numele de Biserica Sfânta Maria, clădirea a fost parţial distrusă dupa marele incendiu din 1689, când a primit numele actual. Biserica Neagră este unul dintre cele mai reprezentative monumente de arhitectură gotică din România datând din secolele XIV-XV.
Construcţia bisericii a început serios în anul 1384 şi a fost finalizată în anul 1477. O inscripţie descoperită în zidul bisericii îl atestă ca prim ctitor pe Thomas despre care aflăm că a murit în anul 1410.
Grav avariată după incendiu, Biserica Neagră a fost refăcută cu ajutorul unor meşteri veniţi din oraşul hanseatic Danzig, pentru că meşterii locali nu mai ştiau să închidă bolţi de dimensiuni atât de mari. Noile bolţi, însă, sunt în stil baroc, nu gotic.
Planul utilizat de către arhitecţi a fost acela de bazilică cu trei nave, egale ca înălţime, înscriindu-se în tipul de biserici–hală preferate în secolele XV-XVI în spaţiul german, de unde proveneau dealtfel unii dintre arhitecţi şi meşteri.
Biserica Neagră este cel mai mare edificiu de cult în stil gotic din sud-estul Europei, măsurând 89 de metri lungime şi 38 de metri lăţime. În această biserică încap circa 5.000 de persoane.
Biserica Neagră este celebră nu doar prin dimensiunile sale ci şi prin alte lucruri: astfel, în cloponiţă se află cel mai mare clopot din spaţiul românesc, un clopot din bronz care cântăreşte 6 tone. Biserica Neagră este cunoscută şi pentru marea sa orgă având peste 4.000 de tuburi, fiind una din cele mai mari din Europa de Sud-Est. Corul susţinut de contraforţi exteriori decoraţi cu edicole care adăpostesc statui de sfinţi constituie unul din puţinele exemple de acest tip din Transilvania. Colecţia de covoare orientale a Bisericii Negre este cea mai bogată de acest tip din România. Săptămânal se organizează un concert de orgă.


BLACK CHURCH



Biserica Neagră is a cathedral in Braşov, a city in south-eastern Transylvania, Romania. It was built by the German community of the city and stands as the main Gothic style monument in the country, as well as being the largest and one of the most important Lutheran (Evangelical Church of Augustan Confession in Romania) places of worship in the region.

The originally-Roman Catholic structure was know as the Church of Saint Mary, replacing an older building used for the same purpose. Construction on it began during the late 14th century, at an unknown date — analysis of related evidence has led several researchers to conclude that work began between 1383 and 1385. It is known that, in its first stages, the building was serviced by a priest named Thomas (died 1410), whose grave is located in the choir area. Work on the fortifications in the surrounding area probably began at the same time as work on the church, leading in time to the completion of Braşov's third citadel.
Its altar originally featured a single column, but its role in supporting the entire central structure — on the model of German cathedrals built by Hans Stettheimer —, a view expressed by researchers such as Ernst Kühlbrandt and Antal Hekler, is under dispute. The naves took longer to complete, and construction was interrupted for various intervals: in 1423, Pope Martin V issued an indulgence for people involved in construction, as a means to reactivate the site; in 1474, a document issued by Sixtus IV acknowledged that work was still lagging.
Several octogonal pillars, redesigned at least once during the building process, were probably completed around 1444. One of them features the inlaid crest of military leader John Hunyadi, who is mentioned among the church benefactors.The most intense work took place before and after 1450, and involved completing the exceptionally large number of portals, including the northern "Golden Gate" and its adjacent altar of the Holy Sacrifice.The eastern portal, commissioned by the Hungarian King Matthias Corvinus, was completed in 1476.The vestry was enlarged at some point between 1500 and 1515.



Completed during the 15th century (soon after 1476), the church belongs to the final stages of Gothic architecture.The result was a three-nave basilica, all the same height, as was preferred during the 15th and 16th centuries in the German lands, where most of the architects and masons originated. Many parts of the building show similarities with the church in Sebeş and St. Michael Church of Cluj-Napoca, as well as with the Dominikánsky kostol in Košice. The design was itself an inspiration for other religious buildings in the region, and it is possible that a stonemason originally employed on the site later worked on the church in Ghimbav.
The Catholic services were replaced with Lutheran ones during the Protestant Reformation, coinciding with the influence exercised by Johannes Honter. A statue in memory of Honter was later erected on one side of the buidling. The structure was partially destroyed during a great fire set by invading Habsburg forces on the April 21, 1689 (during the Great Turkish War). Afterward, it became known as the Black Church. A large part of the inner structure was modified during the 18th century, breaking with the original design.
Following the fire of 1689, Biserica Neagră was repaired with the help of masons coming from Danzig, as local craftsmen did not master the craft of completing the enormous vaults; these were to be completed in Baroque style.
Biserica Neagră is 89 meters in length and 38 meters wide. It measures 65 meters from the floor level to the highest point of its only bell tower. The Black Church has a six ton bell, the biggest in Romania, an impressive 4,000 pipe organ built in 1839 by Carl August Buchholz (1796-1884) which is played during weekly concerts, as well as a rich collection of Anatolian carpets (donated in the Middle Ages by Transylvanian Saxon merchants).
Much of the outside structure was built in friable grit, which caused outer sculptures and masonry elements to deteriorate with time. The oldest features surviving include several sculptures, arches, simpler masonry patterns such as trilobes, as well as numerous portals, while the crowning is imitation Gothic dating from the 18th century.
The oldest sculpture appears to be the almost completely deteriorated bust of John the Baptist, located in the choir section, reflects the Bohemian Gothic art as seen in the works of Johann and Peter Parler. A more flamboyant Gothic style was used in the outside sculptures — those probably depicting Biserica Neagră's supposed founder, Thomas, and the Catholic patron saint of Transylvania, Nicholas. Other pieces in that style include the Nativity, Salvator Mundi, an archangel, as well as depictions of saints believed to be the Four Evangelists (probably completed in various stages between 1430 and 1450). Newer medieval sculptures, created after 1450 and showing some Renaissance influences, feature the northward bas-relief depicting Jesus Christ in the Second Temple of Jerusalem, as well as various figures on the same facade.
A partly destroyed mural, which appears to have been completed around 1477, is situated near the southeastern portal, and features the crests of Matthias Corvinus and his wife Beatrice. It shows the Nativity, together with depictions of Saint Catherine and Saint Barbara.Unlike the inner Annunciation mural, which is late Gothic, the outside painting is heavily influenced by the Renaissance. Biserica Neagră also features a cast iron tabernacle in Gothic style, a baptismal font (completed in 1472 and donated by a merchant named Johannes Rewdel), two large chalices (both dated around 1504) and several brocade chasubles (created between in the late 15th and mid-16th centuries).



The cathedral is a major symbol of Braşov, and a museum open to visitors of the city center. A Lutheran service is held each Sunday for the small German community in the city.



CASTELUL BRAN



Situat la 30 km de Brasov, intre Muntii Bucegi si Piatra Craiului, Castelul Bran este un important monument national si punct de reper al turismului din Romania, datorita atat frumusetii lui, a peisajului, cat si a legendei contelui Dracula, al carui spirit bantuie inca aceste locuri stravechi.
Prima atestare documentara a Castelului Bran o reprezinta actul emis la 19 noiembrie 1377 de Ludovic I d'Anjou prin care brasovenii primeau privilegiul de a construi Cetatea "cu munca si cheltuiala lor proprie" ... In schimb, regele confirma subordonarea a 13 localitati fata de Cetate. Conducerea Cetatii Bran era incredintata unui castelan, care avea si atributii jurisdictionale, iar garnizoana permanenta era compusa din arcasi si balistari. Intre anii 1419-1424, Cetatea revine in posesia lui Sigismund.
La sfarsitul secolului al XV-lea Cetatea Bran este subordonata autoritatii comitetului secuilor, raspunzator de apararea sud-estului Transilvaniei, iar din timpul lui Iancu de Hunedoara trece sub conducerea voievodatului Transilvaniei. De-a lungul vremii Cetatea Bran si-a indeplinit cu prisosinta rolul de aparator impotriva invaziei turcesti.



La 1 Decembrie 1920 Consiliul orasenesc al orasului Brasov doneaza Castelul Bran Reginei Maria a Romaniei Mari, ca semn de recunostinta fata de contributia sa la infaptuirea Marii Uniri de la 1 Decembrie 1918.
Intre anii 1920-1927 Castelul Bran a fost restaurat sub conducerea arhitectului Curtii Regale, Carol Liman, care il transforma intr-o frumoasa resedinta de vara, inconjurata de parc, cu alei de promenada, lac, fantani, terase de popas, construind si Casa de ceai. In anul 1938 Regina Maria lasa prin testament Castelul Bran, cu intreg domeniul, fiicei sale Principesa Ileana, care-l stapaneste pana in 1948.



Dupa expulzarea din tara a familiei regale, in anul 1948, Castelul Bran a intrat in proprietatea statului roman, ramanand o perioada abandonat si devastat. Din 1956, partial amenajat, Castelul a fost deschis ca muzeu de istorie si arta feudala. Fiind intr-o stare avansata de degradare, in anul 1987 Castelul intra in restaurare, lucrare terminata in linii mari in 1993.



BRAN CASTLE



Bran castle,situated at 30 Km from Brasov, between the Bucegi and Piatra Craiului Mountains, Bran Castle is an important national monument and landmark of the Romanian tourism, due not only to the beauty of the Castle and the landscape but also to the legend of Count Dracula.
The first documentary attestation of the Bran Castle is the act issued on November 19, 1377, by Ludovic I D'Anjou giving the inhabitants of Brasov the privilege to build the Citadel "on their own work and expense"... In exchange for this, the king confirmed the subordination of 13 localities to Brasov town and conferred the leadership of Bran Fortress to a lord of a castel who had also jurisdictional attributions. The permanent garrison was numerically restrained to 12-24 soldiers: archers and ballisters. Between the years 1419-1424 the Fortress returned in Sigismund's possession.
At the end of the XV-th century, the Bran Fortress was subordinated to the authority of the Szeklers Committee, responsile for the defene of the Sout-East of Transylvania, and since the reign of Iancu of Hunedoara, the Fortress passed under the rule of the Voivode of Transylvania.
On December lst, 1920, the Brasov Town council donated the Bran Castle to Queen Marie of Great Romania, as a symbol of gratitude for her contribution to the achievement of the "Great Union" of 1 December 1918.



Between 1920-1927, the Bran Castle was restored under the guidance of the Royal Court architect, Carol liman. He transformed it into a beautiful summer residence, surrounded with a park, fountains, a lake, walking alleys and halt terraces and built the "Tea House" Of Queen Marie. In 1938 Queen Marie left with will the Bran Castle to her daughter, Princess Ileana.
After the expulsion of the royal family from the country in 1948, the Bran Castle became the property of the Romanian State, being abandoned and ravaged for a period. Since 1956 the Castle was opened as a museum of history and feudal art. Being in a serious degradtion, a new restoration process of the Castle starded in 1987. The repair, by and large was finished in 1993.

1 comment:

laura said...

de fapt sunt trei concerte de orga pe saptamana:marti, joi si sambata de la ora 18